World Diabetes Day (WDD) every year is celebrated on, 14 November, on the birth date of Sir Frederick Banting who discovered insulin along with his team in 1922. Concerning the threat of diabetes in 1991, IDF created WDD to spread awareness among the people. In 2007 in response to the diabetes epidemic started a campaign and the blue circle logo were adopted by the whole universe to symbolise the fight against diabetes and spread awareness. It also provides strength and support against diabetes. The blue circle emphasises unity and positivity. The theme of World Diabetes Day 2022 is Access to Diabetes Care.
Diabetes which is also known as diabetes mellitus or in a lane man language is popularly called sugar, according to the research data, it’s one of the most prominently increasing diseases all over the world and the most challenging disease of the 21st century, which has no cure but can be controlled by changing the regular habits. It is because of the imbalance of the glucose-lowering hormone i.e. Insulin and glycogen.
Insulin and glycogen are the two forms which help the body to maintain its blood sugar level. Insulin is secreted from the beta cells of the pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) and rising the glucose level inside the bloodstream whereas glycogen is stored in the form of glucose in the liver and muscles and the body used it as energy in a stressed situation like by doing exercise when there is low blood sugar glycogen can be released from alpha cells of the pancreas. In comparison to insulin and glycogen, insulin increases the uptake of sugar and stimulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen while glycogen breakdown into glucose, this mechanism happens in the normal human body. Whereas, in diabetic Mellitus, there is a reducing the effect of insulin and the release of glycogen increased.
TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Mainly there are three major types of DM (type1, type2 and gestational diabetes), but per the condition, the types of diabetes are modified, some of the examples are maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Neonatal diabetes, type 3c diabetes, steroid induce diabetes, cystic fibrosis diabetes, etc.
- Type 1 another name is Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is mostly seen in children and young people that’s why it is also known as juvenile-onset diabetes. In this condition, the body gets attacked by its own immune system and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas. TYPE 1 can be occurred because of:
- Family history
- Environmental factor
- Presence of diabetes antibodies
2. Type 2: Non -insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: generally, occur because of the abnormally increasing effect of insulin. Normally it happens as insulin enters to the system in the form of glucose from beta cells of the pancreas and then it binds to the cells and produces energy, but in type 2 diabetes insulin is unable to bind with the cells so that the fuel for the body cannot be generated. According to the data of researchers around 90% of people are suffering from type2 and this may be because of:
- Beta cells abnormality or deficiency of beta cells
- Reduce the effect of insulin receptors
- Excessive effect of hyperglycaemic hormones
- Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels
- Age factor
Type 2 diabetes is generally seen in middle age people that why it is known as maturity-onset DM. This type of diabetes is a challenge for the world, the main reason for this is people’s unhealthy lifestyles.
3. Gestational diabetes: blood sugar high during pregnancy and later in life it also leads to Type 2 diabetes.
Some of the basic change in the lifestyle leads to saving one more year of life by controlling DM:
- By changing eating habits: it is important to eat healthy for that, a strict diet plan should be followed, whatever we eat it comes into the bloodstream may affect the level of sugar. One of the loving foods among youngsters is junk food, according to the nutritional facts,295 calories are present per 100gm, which leads to obesity, cardiovascular disease, hormonal diseases, etc. If used to eat regularly. So, chose to eat healthy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and non-fat dairy products. Diet should be strictly followed especially when you are talking about Insulin injections or any other medicines for antidiabetics.
- Exercise daily: Doing exercise doesn’t mean you have to go to the gym, to make yourself active a 30mintues workout and breathing exercise is sufficient. And if you are unable to do the exercise, you can start walking barefoot on grass, which helps to rejuvenate and calm the senses. Plus, it can ease your stress.
- Avoid Smoking: smoking leads to many health issues, its impact not only on the lungs i.e. respiratory system but that smoke also affects the cardiac system, nervous system, vascular system, and lymphatic system, which leads to heart attack, nerve damage, vascular disease, damage of immune system respectively.
- Reduce consumption of alcohol: Alcohol doesn’t affect the level of sugar, but it supresses the hormone station of the body, which generates the imbalance. According to the American Diabetes Association, alcohol can be preferred in daily life., so a man should not take more than two drinks a day and a woman not more than one. So, one should drink in a controlled manner.
Diabetes mellitus causes:
The WHO says that diabetes is a chronic disease (means it is with you till the end of your life), so diabetes is the seed of:
- Cardiovascular disease: when there is a greater effect of diabetics throughout life leads to the damage of heart blood vessels and increases the chances of heart attack, and arrhythmia (irregular or abnormal heartbeat).
- Eye blindness: Damage to the retina, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and trouble seeing at night is the stem of diabetes.
- Skin relatable diseases: include bacterial infections, fungal infections, and diabetic dermopathy (light brown and scaly patches).
- Kidney failure: over time, there is damage to millions of nephrons in each kidney, which is used to filter, and later it leads to kidney failure.
- Low immunity: As DM is a long-occurring disease, weakens the defence system of the body and causes autoimmune disorders.
- Oedema: Due to capillaries damage or increased pressure results to oedema, which leads to causing wounds which may be slowly healed.