World Diabetes Day (WDD) in every year is celebrated on, 14 November, on the birth date of Sir Frederick Banting who discovered insulin along with his team in 1922. By concerning the threat of diabetes in 1991, IDF created WDD to spread awareness among the people. In 2007 in the response of the diabetes epidemic started a campaign and blue circle logo was adopted by the whole universe to symbolise fight against diabetes and spread the awareness. It also provides strength and support against diabetes. The blue circle emphasis unity and positivity.
Diabetes which is also known as diabetes mellitus or in a lane man language is popularly called as sugar, according to the research data, it’s one of the most prominently increasing disease in all over the world and the most challenging disease of 21st century, which has no cure but can be controlled by changing the regular habits. It is because of the imbalance of the glucose-lowering hormone i.e. Insulin and glycogen.
Insulin and glycogen are the two forms which helps the body to maintain the blood sugar level. Insulin is secreted from the beta cells of pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) and rising the glucose level inside the bloodstreams whereas glycogen is a stored in the form of glucose in liver and muscles and body used it as energy in a stressed situation like by doing exercise, when there is low blood sugar glycogen can be released from alpha cells of pancreas. In comparison of insulin and glycogen, insulin increases the uptake of sugar and stimulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen while glycogen breakdown into glucose, this mechanism is happened in normal human body. Whereas, in diabetics mellitus there is reducing effect of insulin and release of glycogen increased.
TYPES OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Mainly there are three major types of DM (type1, type2 and gestational diabetes), but per the condition, the types of diabetes modified, some of the examples are maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Neonatal diabetes, type 3c diabetes, steroid induce diabetes, cystic fibrosis diabetes, etc.
1.Type 1 another name is Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, mostly seen in children and young people that’s why it is also known as juvenile onset diabetes. In this condition body get attacked by its own immune system and destroy the beta cells of pancreas. TYPE 1 can be occurred because of:
- Family history
- Environmental factor
- Presence of diabetes antibodies
2.Type 2: Non -insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: generally, occur because of abnormally increasing effect of insulin. Normally it happens like insulin enters to the system in the form of glucose from beta cells of pancreas and then it binds to the cells and produce energy, but in type 2 diabetes insulin unable to bind with the cells so that the fuel for the body cannot generated. According to the data of researchers around 90% people are suffering from type2 and this may be because of:
- Beta cells abnormality or deficiency of beta cells
- Reduce effect of insulin receptors
- Excessive effect of hyperglycaemic hormones
- Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels
- Age factor
Type 2 diabetes generally seen in middle age people that why it is known as maturity onset DM. This type of diabetes is a challenge for the world, the main reason of this is people’s unhealthy life style.
3.Gestational diabetes: blood sugar high during pregnancy and later in life it also leads to Type 2 diabetes.
Some of the basic change in the lifestyle leads to saving one more year of life by controlling DM:
- By changing eating habits: it is important to eat healthy for that, a strict diet plan should be followed, whatever we eat it comes into the blood stream may affects the level of sugar. One of the loving foods among youngsters is junk food, according to the nutritional facts,295 calories are present as per 100gm, which leads to obesity, cardiovascular disease, hormonal diseases, etc. If used to eat regularly. So, chose to eat healthy vegetables, fruits, whole grains, non-fats dairy products. Diet should be strictly followed especially when you are talking Insulin injections or any other medicines of antidiabetics.
- Exercise daily: for doing exercise doesn’t mean you have to go to the gym, to make yourself active a 30mintues workout and breathing exercise is sufficient. And if you unable to do the exercise, you can start walking barefoot on grass, which helps to rejuvenate and calm the senses. Plus, it can ease your stress.
- Avoid Smoking: smoking which leads to many health issues, its impact not only in the lungs i.e. respiratory system but that smoke also affects the cardiac system, nervous system, vascular system, lymphatic system, which leads to heart attack, nervous damage, vascular disease, damage of immune system respectively.
- Reduce consumption of alcohol: Alcohol doesn’t affect the level of sugar, but it supresses the hormones station of the body, which generates the imbalance. According to the American Diabetes Association, alcohol can be preferred in the daily life., so a man should not take more than two drinks a day and a woman not more than one. So, one should be drink in a control manner.
Diabetes mellitus, causes:
The WHO says that diabetes is a chronic disease (means it is with you till end of your life), so diabetes is the seed of:
- Cardiovascular disease: when there is greater effect of diabetics throughout life leads to the damage of heart blood vessel and increases the chances of heart attack, arrhythmia (irregular or abnormal heartbeat).
- Eye blindness: Damage of retina, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, trouble in seeing at night are the stem of diabetes.
- Skin relatable diseases: include bacterial infections, fungal infection, diabetic dermopathy (light brown and scaly patches).
- Kidney failure: overtime, there is damage to millions of nephrons in each kidney, which used to filter, and later it leads to kidney failure.
- Low immunity: As DM is a long occurring disease, weaken the defence system of the body and cause autoimmune disorders.
- Edema: Due to capillaries damage or increased pressure results to the edema, which leads to causing wounds which may be slowly healed.